First Steps Women’s Centre

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland) is the term used to describe a condition in which there is a reduced level of thyroid hormone (thyroxine) in the body. This can cause various symptoms, the most common being: tiredness, weight gain, constipation, aches, dry skin, lifeless hair and feeling cold. Treatment is usually easy by taking a tablet each day to replace the missing thyroxine. Treatment usually works well and symptoms usually go.

Cross-section diagram of the neck showing the thyroid gland

Thyroxine is a hormone (body chemical) made by the thyroid gland in the neck. It is carried round the body in the bloodstream. It helps to keep the body's functions (the metabolism) working at the correct pace. Many cells and tissues in the body need thyroxine to keep them going correctly.

Hypothyroidism results from the thyroid gland being unable to make enough thyroxine, which causes many of the body's functions to slow down. Hypothyroidism may also occur if there is not enough thyroid gland left to make thyroxine, eg after surgical removal or injury.

(In contrast, if you have hyperthyroidism, you make too much thyroxine. This causes many of the body's functions to speed up.)

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Information courtesy of Patient.co.uk

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